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Make sure you live your life so that you can die well, and be proud of who you were during your journey. Your legacy matters. Life every day as if you were under a microscope. Give authentic praise to others. Give anyone the time of day if they are a part of your kingdom. Where in your life are you out of alignment? Who have you not apologized to for past wrongdoings where doing so would not bring them unnecessary harm? When do you let yourself get away with withholding your truth?

Clean up your life by cleaning up your integrity. Allow your thoughts, beliefs, and actions to be in total alignment. Allow yourself to become so consistent and predictable that you also, as a result, become deeply trustable. Let go of blaming others entirely. Face directly into your lessons. Realize that no one is coming to save you. Everything in your life is a directly result of your mind. If your life needs cleaning up, then so do your thoughts. Warrior aggression is tied to a higher cause or virtue. It has reason and mindfulness embedded in it.

Warrior energy lives with a sense of forward gear. Ever forward. The Warrior picks a path and leans into it with all of his effort, energy, and life force. A Warrior has a potent sense of totality. In modern times, where comfort, convenience, and immediacy is at an all-time high, men with low Warrior energy are all around. Pick your path and honour it. Know what you want and state it. Be clear in what you want. Get off the fence. Make a decision, commit fully, and re-direct yourself as needed.

State your desires and needs clearly. Be forthcoming and direct in your communication. Warrior energy grows through challenges. Exercise regularly. Use your body. You build confidence by accomplishing tasks. When you see someone being taken advantage of, speak up. When you see someone fighting down, step in and stop them. When you see someone being unjust in their affairs with others, say something. Give your gifts ferociously every day. Let nothing stand in your way. A common misconception is that the Magician archetype is all about performance and showmanship.

More accurately, Magician energy is about mastery, dedication to a craft, or one or multiple sets of hidden knowledge. The doctor utilizes his Magician energy when he plays healer to his patients. The painter deploys his Magician energy when he gets lost in a creative flow and a blank canvas turns into a work of art in front of his very eyes. In the afternoon Pavani will offer an opportunity to fully embody and integrate those archetypal elements through movement and vocal expression.

This day has been created as a space for your own unique exploration - there is no right or wrong - only the gift of self- awareness.

Remains of the Days

Please bring a vegetarian lunch to share, comfy clothes, cushions, a blanket and a journal and a pen. His subjects had chanced to dig up an old sarcophagus containing the mortal remains of a virgin. The king opened the sarcophagus, threw away the bones, and had the empty sarcophagus buried again for later use. That was the end of his story, and also, unfortunately, of the dream. This path to the primordial religious experience is the right one, but how many can recog- nize it?

It is like a still small voice, and it sounds from afar. We shall therefore turn to folklore, where we need not get involved in the grim confrontations and entanglements of individual case histories and can observe the variations of the spirit motif without having to consider conditions that are more or less unique. But since, for internal and external reasons, the hero cannot accomplish this himself, the 12 I am indebted to Mrs. Marie-Louise von Franz for the fairytale material used here. An Estonian fairytale,13 for instance, tells how an ill-treated little orphan boy who had let a cow escape was afraid to return home again for fear of more punishment.

So he ran away, chancing to luck. He naturally got himself into a hopeless situation, with no visible way out. Exhausted, he fell into a deep sleep. The boy recounted everything he could remember happening to him up to the beating he had received the previous evening. You can no longer turn back. Now that you have run away, you must seek a new fortune in the world.

As I have neither house nor home, nor wife nor child, I cannot take fur- ther care of you, but I will give you some good advice for nothing. English titles of tales are given in brackets, though no attempt has been made to locate published translations. It would also have been necessary, at such a moment, to consider his position. The whole story of his life up to the recent past would then have passed before his mind, as is usual in such cases. No one can help the boy to do this; he has to rely entirely on himself. There is no going back. This realization will give the necessary resolution to his actions.

By forcing him to face the issue, the old man saves him the trouble of making up his mind. Her pulse would gradually go up to He collapsed in the middle with his pulse racing at He advised him to continue his wanderings, always to the eastward, where after seven years he would reach the great mountain that betokened his good fortune. Honorius of Autun Expositio in Cantica canticorum, col. Ascend that mountain and learn to know yourself. Benjamin minor, cols. But the inter- vention of the old man—the spontaneous objectivation of the archetype—would seem to be equally indispensable, since the conscious will by itself is hardly ever capable of uniting the personality to the point where it acquires this extraordinary power to succeed.

These cause the who? The resultant enlightenment and untying of the fatal tangle often has some- thing positively magical about it—an experience not unknown to the psychotherapist. To this end he makes ready use of animals, particularly birds. For instance, he tells the boy who has gone to fetch the silver water that the well is guarded by a lion who has the deceptive trick of sleeping with his eyes open and watching with his eyes shut;21 or he counsels the youth who is riding to a magic fountain in order to fetch the healing draught for the king, only to draw the water at a trot because of the lurking witches who lasso everybody that comes to the foun- tain.

Then she must plunge her beloved white lily into the boiling tar, and when the werewolf comes, she must empty the cauldron over its head, which will release her lover from the spell. What a pity the main wall is a bit crooked! Since the archetype is an autonomous content of the unconscious, the fairytale, which usually concretizes the archetypes, can cause the old man to appear in a dream in much the same way as happens in modern dreams. The King of the Forest is here a vegeta- tion or tree numen who reigns in the woods and, through the nixies, also has connections with water, which clearly shows his relation to the unconscious since the latter is frequently expressed through wood and water symbols.

Why are you sitting here so lonely and sad? But when she looked round there was only a tiny little old man standing before her, who nodded his head at her and looked so kind and simple. The text swarms with phonetic mistakes. It seems to me more probable that this liking for diminutives on the one hand and for superlatives—giants, etc. How often in the critical moments of life everything hangs on what appears to be a mere nothing! There is a particularly instructive example of this in the Estonian fairytale of the step- daughter and the real daughter.

The former is an orphan dis- tinguished for her obedience and good behaviour. She now comes to a wash-house where a dirty old man is sitting who wants her to wash him. Get her to piss into the tub! Nevertheless she goes on and does everything wrong that the stepdaughter had done right, and is rewarded accordingly. One soldier, when his turn came, tried to escape. Suddenly a little man stood before him with a long grey beard, but it was none other than the Lord God himself, who could no longer go on looking at all the mischief the devil wrought every night.

To this the spirit archetype is no exception. Even his dwarf form implies a kind of limitation and suggests a naturalistic vegetation-numen sprung from the underworld. In one Balkan tale, the old man is handicapped by the loss of an eye. Mysterium Coniunctionis, par. Characteristically enough, the animal rid- den by the old man in our fairytale is a goat, a sign that he himself has a dark side.

In the course of the story the latter, after being brought back to life several times, kills the old man by a mistake, and thus throws away his good fortune. Eventually the hero succeeds in killing his persistent mur- derer, but in the struggle he also kills the one-sided old man, so that the identity of the two victims is clearly revealed. This may very well be, for every- day experience shows that it is quite possible for a superior, though subliminal, foreknowledge of fate to contrive some 34 Prudentius, Contra Symmachum, I, 94 trans.

And indeed the old man has a wicked aspect too, just as the primitive medicine-man is a healer and helper and also the dreaded concocter of poisons. The story relates how the hero and his companions go to a feast in the next village, leaving their dogs at home.

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There now follows the well-known motif of the biter bit. The fact that the Creator, son of the Selfcreated, was a party to the advice raises a knotty problem whose solution we had best leave to the Siberian theologians. The boy, however, grows up into a horrid little tough who bul- lies all the children and slaughters the cattle.

For ten years he is given no name. The knife in his leg is of vital import- ance: if he draws it out himself, he will live; if anybody else does so, he will die. In the end the knife becomes his doom, for an old witch pulls it out when he is asleep. He dies, but is restored to life by the friends he has won. His wanderings bring him to the hut of an old woman, who warns him against continuing the search. But a tree laden with fruit, ever receding before him, lures him away from the hut. When at last the tree comes to a halt, an old man climbs down from the branches.

He regales the king and takes him to a castle, where the sister is living with the old man as his wife. She tells her brother that the old man is a wicked spirit who will kill him. His younger brother now takes up the search and kills the wicked spirit in the form of a dragon. A handsome young man is thereby released from the spell and forthwith marries the sister. He is a mur- derer. In an interpolated episode, he is accused of enchanting a whole city by turning it to iron, i. This amounts to saying that the sister is animus-possessed. The old man is therefore to be regarded as her animus.

Meanwhile, the old man acts the part of the villain and has to be forcibly removed, only to appear at the end as the husband of the sister-anima, or more properly as the bridegroom of the soul, who celebrates the sac- red incest that symbolizes the union of opposites and equals. The magician, how- ever, must rest content with the role of the biter bit.

The animal form shows that the contents and func- tions in question are still in the extrahuman sphere, i.

The 4 Major Jungian Archetypes

It must be remembered, however, that this division is only true within the sphere of consciousness, where it is a necessary condition of thought. Logic says tertium non datur, meaning that we cannot envisage the opposites in their oneness. In other words, while the abolition of an obstinate antinomy can be no more than a postulate for us, this is by no means so for the unconscious, whose contents are without exception paradoxical or antinomial by nature, not excluding the category of being.

Were it conscious, it would be morally better than man.

There is deep doctrine in the legend of the fall: it is the expres- sion of a dim presentiment that the emancipation of egocon- sciousness was a Luciferian deed. But tell me, where is your way leading you? This intermezzo proceeds exactly like the meet- ing with the helpful old man.

In the same story, the archetype also displays its other, wicked side. In order to make this clear I shall give a summary of the story: While the young man is watching his pigs in the wood, he discovers a large tree, whose branches lose themselves in the clouds. Next day he goes on climbing and by noon has reached the foliage. Only towards evening does he come to a village nestling in the branches.

The peasants who live there give him food and shelter for the night. In the morning he climbs still further. Towards noon, he reaches a castle in which a young girl lives. So the young man stays with the princess, and she allows him to go into all the rooms of the castle: one room alone she forbids him to enter. But curiosity is too strong.

One nail goes through his throat, the two others through the wings. The raven complains of thirst and the young man, moved by pity, gives him water to drink. In the same way he meets a bear and a lion, who also give him some hairs. In addition the lion informs him that the princess is imprisoned nearby in a hunting-lodge. When the hunter has disappeared into the wood, the young man creeps back to the house and per- suades the princess to wheedle from the hunter the secret of how he obtained his clever white horse.

Whoever was able to guard the foals for three days might choose a horse as a reward. In former times, said the hunter, she used to make a gift of twelve lambs into the bargain, in order to satisfy the hunger of the twelve wolves who lived in the woods near the farmstead, and prevent them from attacking; but to him she gave no lambs.

That was why it had only three legs. To this she consented. Instantly she commanded the foals to run away, and, to make him sleepy, she gave him brandy. He drinks, falls asleep, and the foals escape.

He can now go and choose his reward. This is naturally the best horse, and it too is white. Hardly has he got it out of the stall when the witch pierces the four hoofs and sucks the marrow out of the bones. From this she bakes a cake and gives it to the young man for his journey. The horse grows deathly weak, but the young man feeds it on the cake, where- upon the horse recovers its former strength.

He gets out of the woods unscathed after quieting the twelve wolves with the twelve lambs. He then fetches the princess and rides away with her. The three-legged white horse is thus the property of the demonic hunter, and the four-legged one the property of the witch. Spirit is here partly a function, which like any other object horse can change its owner, and partly an autonomous subject magician as owner of the horse.

By obtaining the four-legged horse from the witch, the young man frees a spirit or a thought of some special kind from the grip of the unconscious. The four-legged horse shows itself superior to the three-legged, since it can command the latter. And since the quaternity is a symbol of wholeness and wholeness plays a con- siderable role in the picture-world of the unconscious,38 the victory of four-leggedness over three-leggedness is not altogether unexpected.

But what is the meaning of the oppos- ition between threeness and fourness, or rather, what does threeness mean as compared with wholeness? In this symbolism the lower stands to the higher as a correspondence40 in reverse; that is to say it is con- ceived, like the upper, as a triad. Three, being a masculine num- ber, is logically correlated with the wicked hunter, who can be thought of alchemically as the lower triad. Four, a feminine number, is assigned to the old woman. The two horses are miraculous animals that talk and know and thus represent the unconscious spirit, which in one case is subordinated to the wicked magician and in the other to the old witch.


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The latter, according to alchemy, denotes polarity, since one triad always presupposes another, just as high presupposes low, lightness darkness, good evil. Three have animal heads and one a human head the angel. If one imagines the quaternity as a square divided into two halves by a diagonal, one gets two triangles whose apices point in opposite directions. One could therefore say metaphorically that if the wholeness symbolized by the quaternity is divided into equal halves, it produces two opposing triads.

The three-leggedness is due to an accident, therefore, which occurred at the very moment when the horse was leaving the territory of the dark mother. In psychological language we should say that when the unconscious wholeness becomes manifest, i. He has stolen away the princess and holds her a prisoner. She describes 41 Cf. He is imprisoned, like all jailers, in his own prison, and bound like all who curse. The prison of both is a magic castle at the top of a gigantic tree, presumably the world-tree.

The princess belongs to the upper region of light near the sun. Sitting there in captivity on the world-tree, she is a kind of anima mundi who has got herself into the power of darkness. This was what the raven, who is identical with the hunter, did when he ravished a pre- cious soul from the upper world of light; and so, as a punish- ment, he is nailed to the wall in that upper world. The Saviour who freed the soul of humanity from the dominion of the prince of this world was nailed to a cross down below on earth, just as the thieving raven is nailed to the wall in the celestial branches of the world-tree for his pre- sumptuous meddling.

In our fairytale, the peculiar instrument of the magic spell is the triad of nails. Who it was that made the raven captive is not told in the tale, but it sounds as if a spell had been laid upon him in the triune name. Nothing excites our interest more than a prohibition. It is the surest way of provoking disobedience.

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Obviously there is some secret scheme afoot to free not so much the princess as the raven. As soon as the hero catches sight of him, the raven begins to cry piteously and to complain of thirst,44 and the young man, moved by the virtue of compassion, slakes it, not with hyssop and gall, but with quickening water, whereupon the three nails fall out and the raven escapes through the open window. Thus the evil spirit regains his freedom, changes into the hunter, steals the princess for the second time, but this time locks her up in his hunting-lodge on earth.

These are the two triads that point in opposite directions. It is the Achilles heel of even the most heroic consciousness: somewhere the strong man is weak, the clever man foolish, the good man bad, and the reverse is also true. In our fairytale the triad appears as a muti- lated quaternity. If only one leg could be added to the other three, it would make a whole. Here the symbolism of our fairytale leaves us in the lurch, and we are obliged to have recourse to the facts of psychology. The fourth, inferior function proves on the other hand to be inaccessible to our will. It appears now as a teasing and distracting imp, now as a deus ex machina.

But always it comes and goes of its own volition. The young swineherd who climbs from the animal level up to the top of the giant world-tree and there, in the upper world of light, discovers his captive anima, the high-born princess, symbolizes the ascent of consciousness, rising from almost bestial regions to a lofty perch with a broad outlook, which is a singularly appropriate image for the enlargement of the conscious horizon. On the contrary, he makes the disagreeable discovery that his high and mighty anima, the Princess Soul, is bewitched up there and no freer than a bird in a golden cage.

What use now is his lofty perch and his wide horizon, when his own dear soul is languishing in prison? Worse, she plays the game of the underworld and ostensibly tries to stop the young man from discovering the secret of her imprisonment, by for- bidding him to enter that one room.

Jordan Peterson: Jungian Archetypes etc.

But secretly she leads him to it by the very fact of her veto. It is as though the unconscious had two hands of which one always does the opposite of the other. The princess wants and does not want to be rescued. Black spirit though he is, he longs for the light. But so long as the evil spirit is caught in the upper world, the princess cannot get down to earth either, and the hero remains lost in paradise. So now he commits the sin of disobedience and thereby enables the robber to escape, thus causing the abduction of the princess for the second time—a whole chain of calamities.

In the result, however, the princess comes down to earth and the devilish raven assumes the human shape of the hunter. The other-worldly anima and the evil principle both descend to the human sphere, that is, they dwindle to human proportions and thus become approachable. It is these that give unconscious activities their unexpectedly accurate information. As the story unfolds, he becomes more and more like the hunter: he too obtains his horse from the witch.

But, unlike him, the hunter omitted to obtain the twelve lambs in order to feed the wolves, who then injured his horse. He forgot to pay tribute to the chthonic powers because he was nothing but a robber. The quaternity in our tale proves to be the greater power, for it integrates into its totality that which it still needed in order to become whole. The knot is unravelled directly the hero succeeds in capturing the quaternity—or in psychological language, when he assimilates the inferior function into the ternary system.

Thus the anima is and remains the representative of that part of the unconscious which can never be assimilated into a humanly attainable whole. Only after the completion of my manuscript was my attention drawn by a friend to a Russian variant of our story. The three sisters represent an unconscious triad of functions related to both the animal and spiritual realms. The bird-men are a species of angel and emphasize the auxiliary nature of the unconscious functions.

The corresponding witch is the well-known Baba Yaga. The magic riding animals do not in the end turn into human beings. This Russian story has a dis- tinctly more primitive character. That such connections exist at all is something of a hypothesis, like that which asserts that dreams have a 55 The old man puts the dismembered body into a barrel which he throws into the sea. This is reminiscent of the fate of Osiris head and phallus. The truth of this assumption is not established a priori: its usefulness can only be proved by application.

It therefore remains to be seen whether its methodical application to irrational material enables one to interpret the latter in a mean- ingful way. Its application consists in approaching the material as if it had a coherent inner meaning. Likewise, the four-leggedness in the fairytale, when raised to the level of a general concept, enters into relationship with the threeness, and as a result we have the enigma mentioned in the Timaeus, the problem of three and four.

By raising the irrational datum three-leggedness and four-leggedness to the level of a general concept we elicit the universal meaning of this motif and encourage the inquiring mind to tackle the problem seriously. Only in this way can the nexus of unconscious relationships be made to yield their own meaning, in contrast to those deductive interpretations derived from a preconceived theory, e.

The three and the four remind us not only of the dilemma we have already met in the theory of psychological functions, but also of the axiom of Maria Prophetissa, which plays a considerable role in alchemy. It may therefore be rewarding to examine more closely the mean- ing of the miraculous horses. It does not denote the whole of the unconscious, but only the personal segment of it. Symbols of Transformation, pp. As the fairytale rightly says, she has been changed by witchcraft into the three-legged horse Princess B.

We can sort out this imbroglio more or less as follows: 1. Princess A is the anima59 of the hero. She rides—that is, possesses—the three-legged horse, who is the shadow, the inferior function-triad of her later spouse. She has caught him on his weak side, as so often hap- pens in ordinary life, for where one is weak one needs support and completion.

This is how we would have to formulate the situation if we regarded the hero and Princess A as two ordinary people. In that case the hero has been wafted out of the profane world through his encounter with the anima, like Mer- lin by his fairy: as an ordinary man he is like one caught in a marvellous dream, viewing the world through a veil of mist.

The matter is now considerably complicated by the unexpected fact that the three-legged horse is a mare, an equiva- lent of Princess A. Therefore, she is possessed by a shadow. The question now is, whose shadow? The 59 The fact that she is no ordinary girl, but is of royal descent and moreover the electa of the evil spirit, proves her nonhuman, mythological nature. I must assume that the reader is acquainted with the idea of the anima.

As we have seen, the hunter is somehow connected with the hero, since the latter gradually puts himself in his shoes. Hence one could easily arrive at the conjecture that the hunter is at bottom none other than the shadow of the hero. Bellows, p. Thy proudest captive, Thou brigand back of the clouds! The Prince and his sister, Princess B, have therefore been seized by a pagan god and changed into horses, i. The infer- ence is that in their proper human shape the pair of them once belonged to the sphere of collective consciousness. But who are they?

They are connected with the latter also because they serve as their mounts, and in consequence they appear as their lower, animal halves. According to the fairytale, however, the animal form of the 62 Cf. If they were nothing but animals, we could rest content with this interpretation. The white horses are no ordinary horses: they are miraculous beasts with supernatural powers. The fairytale makes no comment here, but if our assumption is correct that the two animal forms correspond to the subhuman components of hero and princess, then it fol- lows that the human forms—Prince and Princess B—must cor- respond to their superhuman components.

The superhuman quality of the original swineherd is shown by the fact that he becomes a hero, practically a half-god, since he does not stay with his swine but climbs the world-tree, where he is very nearly made its prisoner, like Wotan. Accordingly, in the profane world a swineherd becomes a king, and a princess gets an agreeable husband. The fairytale therefore does not omit to point out what happens in the world of magic.

There too a prince and princess have got into the power of the evil spirit, who is himself in a tight corner from which he cannot extricate himself without extraneous help. So the human fate that befalls the swineherd and Princess A is paralleled in the world of magic. We must, it seems, start from this highest level if we want to understand the story correctly, for the drama takes its rise from the initial transgression of the evil spirit.

In that distressing situation he needs outside help, and as it is not forthcoming from above, it can only be summoned from below. A young swineherd, pos- sessed with the boyish spirit of adventure, is reckless and inquisi- tive enough to climb the world-tree. The capture of Princess A was a transgression in the profane world, and the bewitching of the—as we may suppose—semidivine brother-sister pair was just such an enormity in the magical world. We do not know, but it is possible, that this heinous crime was committed before the bewitching of Princess A. At any rate, both episodes point to a transgression of the evil spirit in the magical world as well as in the profane.

Ninck, Wodan und germanischer Schick- salsglaube, p. His horse is also described as, among other things, three- legged. He is of lowly origin and has this much in common with the curious conception of the redeemer in alchemy. The moral of this story is in truth exceedingly odd. Prince and Princess B like- wise celebrate their wedding, but this—in accordance with the archaic prerogative of kings—takes the form of incest, which, though somewhat repellent, must be regarded as more or less habitual in semidivine circles.

The wicked hunter is trampled to pieces by the horses, which presumably does no lasting damage to a spirit. Apparently he vanishes without trace, but only appar- ently, for he does after all leave a trace behind him, namely a hard-won happiness in both the profane and the magical world. Two halves of the quaternity, represented on one side by the swineherd and Princess A and on the other by Prince and Prin- cess B, have each come together and united: two marriage-pairs now confront one another, parallel but otherwise divided, inas- much as the one pair belongs to the profane and the other to the magical world.

But in spite of this indubitable division, secret psychological connections, as we have seen, exist between them which allow us to derive the one pair from the other. Conceived in this way, the swineherd and Princess A are nothing less than earthly simulacra of Prince and Princess B, who in their turn would be the des- cendants of divine prototypes.

Nor should we forget that the horse-breeding witch belongs to the hunter as his female coun- terpart, rather like an ancient Epona the Celtic goddess of horses. Unfortunately we are not told how the magical conjur- ation into horses happened. But it is evident that the witch had a hand in the game because both the horses were raised from her stock and are thus, in a sense, her productions. The latter is easily rec- ognized in the central Christian idea of sponsus et sponsa, Christ and his bride, the Church.

Looked at from this angle, the latter stands for everything a man can become if only he climbs high enough up the world-tree. The Moor represents the alchemical nigredo in which the arcane substance lies hidden, an idea that forms yet another parallel to our mythologem, or, as we would say in psychological language, another variant of this archetype.

It depicts the workings of a spirit who carries our Christian think- ing beyond the boundaries set by ecclesiastical concepts, seeking an answer to questions which neither the Middle Ages nor the present day have been able to solve. The fact that it is a German fairytale makes the position particularly interesting, since this same Wotanism was the psychological godfather of National Socialism, a phe- nomenon which carried the distortion to the lowest pitch before the eyes of the world.

The fairytale tells us how to proceed if we want to overcome the power of darkness: we must turn his own weapons against him, which naturally cannot be done if the magical underworld of the hunter remains unconscious, and if the best men in the nation would rather preach dogmatisms and platitudes than take the human psyche seriously. Spirit was originally a spirit in human or animal form, a daimonion that came upon man from without. But our material already shows traces of an expansion of consciousness which has gradually begun to occupy that ori- ginally unconscious territory and to transform those daimonia, at least partially, into voluntary acts.

Man conquers not only nature, but spirit also, without realizing what he is doing. To the man of enlightened intellect it seems like the correction of a fallacy when he recognizes that what he took to be spirits is simply the human spirit and ultimately his own spirit. But were the unanimous convictions of the past really and truly only exaggerations? He will point proudly to the advances in physics and medicine, to the freeing of the mind from medieval stupidity and—as a well-meaning Christian—to our deliverance from the fear of demons. But we continue to ask: what have all our other cultural achievements led to?

Four archetypes : mother, rebirth, spirit, trickster

The fearful answer is there before our eyes: man has been delivered from no fear, a hideous nightmare lies upon the world. So far reason has failed lamentably, and the very thing that everybody wanted to avoid rolls on in ghastly progression. After the last World War we hoped for reason: we go on hoping. And who or what is it that causes all this? It is none other than that harmless! Worse, this spirit does every- thing to avoid looking himself in the face, and we all help him like mad.

Only, heaven preserve us from psychology—that depravity might lead to self-knowledge! When shall we stop taking man for granted in this barbarous manner and in all seriousness seek ways and means to exorcize him, to rescue him from possession and unconscious- ness, and make this the most vital task of civilization? Christianity has shown us the way, but, as the facts bear witness, it has not penetrated deeply enough below the surface. The present translation then appeared in the English version of the volume: The Trickster: A Study in American Indian Mythology London and New York, ; it is republished here with only minor revisions.

These qualities make Mercurius seem like a daemonic being resurrected from primi- tive times, older even than the Greek Hermes. These are the phenomena connected with poltergeists, and they occur at all times and places in the ambience of pre-adolescent children. His universality is co-extensive, so to speak, with that of shamanism, to which, as we know, the whole phenomenology of spiritualism belongs.

There is something of the trickster in the character of the shaman and medicine-man, for he, too, often plays malicious jokes on people, only to fall victim in his turn to the vengeance of those whom he has injured. For this reason, his profession sometimes puts him in peril of his life. Besides that, the shamanistic techniques in themselves often cause the medicine-man a good deal of discomfort, if not actual pain. Mostly they were celebrated on the days immediately following the birth of Christ—that is, in the New Year—with singing and dancing. The dances were the originally harmless tripudia of the priests, lower clergy, children, and subdeacons and took place in church.

The same thing happened at the tripudium hypodiacono- rum, and at the dances for other priestly grades. Kalendae, p. According to Du Cange s. This happened even in the immediate vicinity of St. Pila or pelota is the ball which the players throw to one another. See Du Cange, s. Kalendae and pelota. At any rate, the various conciliar decrees issued from to forbade only the festum puerorum and the election of an episcopus puerorum. In Beauvais, the ass procession went right into the church.

Du Cange, s. Amen, amen, itera Aspernare vetera. Glover: From the furthest Eastern clime Came the Ass in olden time, Comely, sturdy for the road, Fit to bear a heavy load. IV, ch. McGlashan, in The Lancet For this reason biology should never forget the question of purpose, for only by answering that can we get at the meaning of a phenom- enon. Even in pathology, where we are concerned with lesions which have no meaning in themselves, the exclusively causal approach proves to be inadequate, since there are a number of pathological phenomena which only give up their meaning when we inquire into their purpose.