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Secondary metabolites are widely diversified in their chemical structures in nature Fig. Our Laboratory focuses on model plants, crop species and medicinal plants for i the analysis of the natural diversity of secondary metabolites, and ii the functional genomics approach for metabolic genes using translational analysis of omics studies genomics, transcriptomics and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics.

The specific goal is identifying key factors of natural chemical diversity and regulatory roles in plant secondary metabolism to enable the metabolic engineering of beneficial compounds. Currently, after completion of full-genome sequencing of huge array of plant species, the complete biosynthetic framework needs to be applied for integrative approaches with other omics data such as genomics and transcriptomics.

We therefore perform metabolomic analysis to screen qualitative differences of metabolite levels between different species, tissues and natural mutants for refinement of recent models of biosynthetic framework.

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Genomic and transcriptomic data as well as metabolomic data derived from genome-wide resources, will be used for translational analysis. We focus on the discovery of key genes involved in the creation of chemical diversity, and production of beneficial compounds. Humic substances consist of organic material resulting from concerted reactions of various biotic and abiotic processes. This complex assemblage of molecules deriving from plant and animal debris, represents one of the most abundant organic materials on earth.

Humic substances are present in both aquatic environments and the atmosphere Graber and Rudich, ; Salma et al.

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Soil HS are known to perform several ecological functions, in both natural and anthropogenic ecosystems. They are responsible for soil fertility by influencing structure and porosity through an effect on particle aggregation Bronick and Lal, In addition, HS supply nutrients, through both chelating minerals and their own degradation Stevenson, , and shape soil biota communities, representing the main source of available organic carbon Kalbitz et al.

These positive effects on plants could be ascribed, in the main, to hormone-like activity, as a number of hormones enclosed in the humus structure have been identified Muscolo et al. In particular, a combination of genetic and molecular biology techniques Dobbs et al. The capacity of HS auxin-like activity to induce root development in plants was first hypothesized by Concheri et al.

This mechanism was further con-firmed by Trevisan et al. The findings obtained showed that HS induced lateral root formation via auxin-like activity, as confirmed by activation of the auxin synthetic reporter DRGUS and enhanced transcription of the early auxin responsive gene IAA According to previous investigations Piccolo, , , HS are supramolecular aggregates and their stability and reactivity depend on the solution's ionic strength and pH of the surrounding environment.

Low molecular weight organic acids, as well as root exudates, break the macro aggregate structure and generate subunits of biological active molecules Nardi et al. Although the recognized importance of IAA to HS to promote plant growth, there is clear evidence that the simple presence of auxin in the bulk HS is not sufficient to justify all plant physiological responses to these aggregates.

Indeed, plants treated with HS often display different behavior in terms of growth and metabolism in comparison to plants treated with the equivalent concentration of IAA Muscolo et al. Furthermore, a transcriptomic study by Trevisan et al. The presence of other signaling molecules in the HS structure, or the involvement of different metabolic messengers mediating HS effects was endorsed by other authors Aguirre et al.

Zandonadi et al. Humic substances can also display gibberellin Nardi et al. Pizzeghello et al.

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On the contrary, physiologically active amounts of gibberellins have not yet been detected in HS. Mora et al. These effects were associated with higher shoot concentration of several cytokinins and polyamines, and a concomitant decrease in their content in roots. Protein-based products can be divided into two major categories: protein hydrolysates consisting of a mixture of peptides and amino acids of animal or plant origin, and individual amino acids such as glutamate, glutamine, proline and glycine betaine.

Protein hydrolysates are produced through enzymatic, chemical or thermal hydrolysis of a variety of animal and plant residues, including animal epithelial or connective tissues Cavani et al.


Individual amino acids include the twenty structural amino acids involved in the synthesis of proteins and non-protein amino acids, which are abundant in some plant species Vranova et al. These amino acids are adsorbed by both roots and leaves and then translocated into the plant Watson and Fowden, ; Soldal and Nissen, ; Michonneau et al. Several studies testing the action of protein hydro-lysates in plants, have demonstrated that their first effect was the stimulation of root and leaf biomass Zhang et al. For instance, Ertani et al. These effects were consistent with those induced by HS in plants, which notoriously increase root growth in the short term and promote shoot biomass over longer periods Nardi et al.

The increase in root dry weight may result in a more successful transplanting of plants, in higher overall plant-biomass productivity and higher yields Zhang et al. These effects on growth appear to be distinct from the nutritional effect of an additional nitrogen source Ertani et al. Despite the mode of action of protein-based bio-stimulants being mostly unknown, recent studies have identified their target metabolic pathways and some of the mechanisms through which they exert their effects on plants Schiavon et al.

In particular, data available so far suggest that protein hydrolyzates may promote nitrogen assimilation in plants via a coordinated regulation of C and N metabolism. For instance, a protein hydrolizate derived from alfalfa plants, enhanced shoot biomass production, soluble sugar accumulation and nitrogen assimilation of hydroponically-grown maize plants Schiavon et al. Specifically, this biostimulant increased the activity of three enzymes malate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase functioning in the tricarboxylic acid cycle TCA and five enzymes nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase and aspartate aminotransferase involved in N reduction and assimilation.

The biostimulant-induced up-regulation of the genes coding for these enzymes was confirmed by RT-PCR experiments. Similarly to the alfalfa protein hydrolysate, a meat hydrolysate derived from tanning residues increased short-term growth and the macro-element content of maize seedlings, and, concomitantly, decreased nitrate, phosphate and sulfate content Ertani et al. In addition, Vernieri et al.

The increased use efficiency of nitrogen was justified by the higher leaf chlorophyll content in treated plants. Kramer reported that the perennial ryegrass plants treated with a product based protein and exposed to prolonged high air temperature stress exhibited both an improved photochemical efficiency and membrane thermostability than untreated plants.

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These results provided consistent and interesting results and showed that foliar applications of protein hydrolysates can positively affect plant tolerance to heat stress Kauffman III et al. In a recent work, Ertani et al. Both biostimulants contained different amounts of indoleaceticacid and isopentenyladenosine; the AH spectra exhibited amino acid functional groups in the peptidic structure, while the RG spectra showed the presence of polyphenols, such as resveratrol.

These results revealed that at flowering, RG and AH increased the fresh weight of leaves and fruits and the number of green fruits, whereas at maturity the biostimulants affected mainly the fresh weight and number of red fruits. At flowering, the leaves of the biostimulant-treated plants contained high amounts of epicatechin, ascorbic acid, quercetin, and dihydrocapsaicin, while at maturity, they exhibited elevated quantities of fructose, glucose, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids.

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Furthermore, green fruits exhibited high contents of chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and antioxidant activity, while both AH- and RG-treated red fruits were highly endowed in capsaicin. These results suggested that AH and RG promoted plant growth and the production of secondary metabolites, such as phenols. Besides the plant positive effects of biostimulants, there are also several studies Ruiz et al.

In some situations, wrong product concentrations or environmental aspects like field conditions may contribute to no-response to biostimulants. For instance, application of biostimulants in excess might induce no-response or negative responses in plants. Asli and Neumann reported that multiple applications of humic acid inhibited the shoot growth of maize grown hydroponically.

No-positive effects were also reported by Kirn et al. Other conditions which induced no-response to biostimulant application are reported by Calvo et al. Recent studies support the potential of different types of biostimulants to improve plant biomass, crop yield and resistance to multiple types of stress.

In particular, primary and secondary metabolic pathways of leaves and root tissues are recognized as targets of biostimulants. Further research combining functional genomic and proteomic approaches may help to obtain more insights in how biostimulants elicit plant growth, nutrient uptake and stress-tolerance responses in different plant species. In addition, these studies could allow for the identification of markers for beneficial plant responses, which may be useful for the development of new biostimulants. Aguirre, E. Te root application of a purified leonardite humic acid modifies the transcriptional regulation of the main physiological root responses to Fe deficiency in Fe-sufficient cucumber plants.

Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Asli, S. Rhizosphere humic acid interacts with root cell walls to reduce hydraulic conductivity and plant development.

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Plant and Soil Augier, H. Bentler-Mowat, J. Investigations on the radish leaf bioassay for kinetins and demonstration of kinetin-like substances in algae. Annals of Botany Bottomley, W. Some accessory factors in plant growth and nutrition. The significance of certain food substances for plant growth. Some effects of organic growth-promotion substances auximones on the growth of Lemma minor in mineral cultural solutions. Bronick, C. Soil structure and management: a review. Geoderma Cacco, G. Plant growth regulator activity of soluble humic complex.

Canadian Journal of Soil Science Calvo, P. Agricultural uses of plant biostimulants. Canellas, L. Plant Physiology Chemical composition and bioactivity properties of size-fractions separated from a vermicompost humic acid. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Physiological responses to humic substances as plant growth promoter. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture 1: Cavani, L.

Estimated H-index: Request Full-text. View in Source. Botany Metabolism Biology Plant physiology. References 0 Citations Cite. References 0. Cited By Co-administration of artemisinin and Ricinodendron heudelotii leaf extract—effects on selected antioxidants and liver parameters in male Wistar rats. Published on May 1, in Comparative Haematology International. Omolara Faith Yakubu 2 Estimated H-index: 2. Estimated H-index: 8. Estimated H-index: 1.

Startling rate of malaria parasite resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives has led to possible herb—drug antimalarial combination therapy.

This study assessed the effect of co-administration of artemisinin and Ricinodendron heudelotii extract on certain liver and antioxidant indices in rats. Four groups containing ten rats each were administered distilled water group A , artemisinin only group B , artemisinin with R. Extracellular chromone derivatives in cell cultures of Pimpinella anisum. Objectives To explore the potentiality of undifferentiated Pimpinella anisum L.

Abstract In the field of natural products, anthraquinones are an important category of secondary metabolites present in various vegetable species. They are highly bioactive compounds, potentially useful for therapeutic applications, as antiviral, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer agents. Extraction processes using pressurized hot water offer an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional extraction and purification methods applied to anthraquinone-containing plants.