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Nikolai M. Karamzin, Zapiska o drevnei i novoi Rossii v ee politicheskom i grazhdan-skom otnosheniiakh Moscow, , Nikolai F. Aleksei L. Vladlen G. Shankov, ed. Moscow, , St Petersburg, — , vol. On this, see Aleksandr N. Popov, Otechestvennaia voina goda , vol.

Moscow, , 35, 37, 60, 70—1, 76—7, 80—1, On the hostilities between the Russian and British navies, see Nikolai D. Griniskii, N. Klado, eds. Dzheims, Istoriia Velikobritanskogo flota ot vremen Frantsuzskoi revoliutsii po Navarinskoe srazhenie , 6 vols. St Petersburg, , vol. Fred T.

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For the texts, see F. Martens, Sobranie traktatov i konventsii, zakliuchennykh Rossieiu s inostrannymi derzhavami , 15 vols. Grin, Kratkaia istoriia angliiskogo naroda , vol. For more on this, see Aleksandr A. Orlov, Soiuz Peterburga i Londona. Central Ukraine and the Ukrainians don't have a firm place on the mental It became part of The Russian-Ukrainian relations were especially diffi- The steppes of Southern a treaty about friendship, cooperation and partnership was Since Viktor Yanukovych Eastern Ukraine since the 19th was elected as the new president in , the tensions were Ukraine in the Russian and the Soviet Empire The question of energy supplies especially gas deliv- Russia has a long imperial past Kappeler, ; Smolii, The Muscovite state became an empire in the mid- Ukraine is dependent on gas dle of the 16th century, when Ivan IV conquered the Since population.

In the 17th century Siberia and the Eastern part Russian Empire extended from Poland in the West to the Official the oases and deserts of Central Asia and to the Caucasus in Its population of millions was composed of As already mentioned, this problem the concepts of dynasty and of ascription to an estate. It With the annexation of Western Ukraine for The population of the late Soviet All kinds of po- They were the pressed.

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However, the Ukrainians now were recognized as During the s the Ukrainian So, the nationalities' Since , Ukrainian nation-building. However, this policy was The Ukrainian so-called Cossack Hetmanate reappeared and the Ukrainians again became subaltern Many educated Since the end of Ukrainians moved to Moscow and other Russian cities and Because Only the West Ukrainians of Galicia, of their numerical strength and the strategic and economic So, Ukrainians were late-comers in the emancipation process Factors of the imperial legacy Russia and the post-imperial space The remaining Their aristocracy had been largely Russified centre was reduced to the territory of the former Russian So, roughly to the Muscovite state in the middle of the 17th Russia was On the other hand Ukrai- deprived of most of the imperial peripheries and lost its However, Russia is still an empire Only when a small group of the with its huge territory extending from the Baltic Sea and The Russian gov- Many Russians and especially the political elites are There is a These Russia tries to control the post-Soviet space, desig- Until , the Red the former Soviet republics by interfering into their inner Russia had to recognize that the Baltic states were Ukraine are regarded as parts of the Russian orbit.

Russia fears a complete separation of Ukraine from In the cities As already in tsarist Russia this is regarded as a of Eastern and Southern Ukraine Russian remains the Only in Western Ukraine and in the So, the asymmetry of the Many Russians and numerous Europeans and Ameri- Russia exerts considerable cans regard Ukrainian as a dialect of the Russian language. As already mentioned, this dances. The Ukrainian literature and music is not taken On the whole the "backward Ukrainians" have to Today's Russia follows this policy use of the Ukrainian language in schools and state in- So, under the pretext of the protection of the On the other hand the aspirations of rights of linguistic minorities it uses the language question In Ukraine as an instrument of pressure and intervention into the in- In reality, as already mentioned, Strong minorities are the adherents of cation during the imperial past.

Again there is an obvious The heritage of the Soviet Empire The Russian nation is imagined as an Orthodox As already mentioned, the politics of nation-building Patriarch Kirill of Moscow explicitly sup- acy Smolii, The existence of a Ukrainian Soviet In summer he important preconditions for the independent Ukrainian On the other hand the politics of The Soviet regime fostered the myth of the This includes the nuclear weapons, this includes Ukraine on the other hand did not abandon fully The situation Russia remains This is especially true the main trading partner of Ukraine and Ukraine is Again dependent on Russian gas and oil, and Russia uses this The government advocates the use of Ukrainian been integrated into the Soviet state, society and economy.

So, there were many interethnic per- However, the Russian lan- sonal ties and networks on the level of political and eco- More than half nomic elites as well as between workers and employees, Russians and Ukrainians took One can speak of a Ukrainization of Russia This transnational heri- in this period. According to the Ukrainian national narrative On a mon European world, and only independent Ukraine now This Ac- Among the building blocks of the Ukrainian tion and the central European influences during Polish rule For the Ukrainian and for the Russian national Russian national ideologues looking at the Ukrainians as Russia and Ukraine conducted a "War of Ukraine is included into the national- of history of the former President Yushchenko and the The periods, during I will mention four examples They only interrupted the main stream of Kievan Rus'.

This first political body in East-Slavic territory The so-called "reunifications" of Ukraine was among the leading powers in Europe at the beginning Medieval history seems to be far For Russian away from contemporary politics. However, if we look at Among numerous examples I According and Romanians, the controversies between Serbs and Al- In the history of the con- In the In this period, from work of Mykhailo Hrushevs'ky, the father of modern Ukrainians emphasize Hrushevs'ky and his work have been condemned In an article, published in , Hrush- The Russian Orthodox Church even laid an anathema The heritage of Kievan on him which has not been revoked until today.

Peter the So, during the propaganda Nevertheless, the issue of the heritage of hero. According to this narrative Mazepa with the support Peter the Great is blamed for having violently sub- That Hausmann, There were political disputes about a But let's not forget that today's joint Russian-Ukrainian celebration of the battle in Poltava, The proposition Kievan Rus' started out was declined by the Ukrainian President Yushchenko, and We the celebration in Poltava took place without higher polit- However, the Russian victory was We have very similar lan- celebrated in the former imperial capital St.

In that respect, I want to repeat again, we are one Yushchenko for his part advocated a joint Ukrainian- Swedish celebration of the battle and the erection of The late After long discussions This outcome shows that the discussion about In brief, it is the myth of a thousand-year-old Mazepa like many of the other discussions is not only one Hardly any historical myth has politicians but it takes place also inside Ukraine.

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There are They were conducted not only by historians and So again, a historical topic was politized During the last years there and instrumentalized in the competition of memories. In Russia, he has Stalinist Soviet Union, which caused the deaths of more In Soviet times the famine had been taboo and Nevertheless, the revisionism in the interpretation of WW In post-Soviet Ukraine, especially II was supported by the official politics of history during the It culminated in the erection of Today, it represents numerous monuments to the UPA and in awarding the title So, in Ukraine, the myth of the "Great Patriotic The expression "banderovtsy" together with "maze- The controversy among historians about Hol- pintsy" was used for a negative designation of nationalist Ukrainian na- Ukrainians already during the Soviet era and is still used In , the Russian President founded a "Commis- Obviously the He activities of the commission should be directed against the Espe- However, Russia may view of the "Great Patriotic War".

On the are not so simple. Russians and Ukrainians have not only The historical The memory is divided not only between Russians and Ukrai- This is more important for Ukraine, There are good arguments against the the minds of many Ukrainian citizens, than for Russia. However, the concerns many Ukrainians in the Eastern and Southern In Russia there are also distinctions and In Russia the victory in the so-called "Great disagreements between imperial, national and liberal So, official Ukraine.

The national-imperial narrative seems to be It is undeniable that Ukraine and Russia have a They are closer entangled than other However, numerous members of these organiza- nations by the common religion Orthodoxy , by a partially Most Ukrainians Russia-dominated Soviet Union. So, the Russian-Ukrainian relationship was and is still characterized by an obvious asymmetry, a hegemony of Russia over Ukraine. This asymmetry is reflected in the competing discourses. Many Russians regard Ukraine as part of the Russian orbit and even of the Russian nation.

Independent Ukraine tries to liberate itself from the Russian hegemony, while Russia wants to keep Ukraine in its own sphere of influence. Russia uses the Orthodox Church and the traditional dominance of the Russian language as instruments for its hegemonic policy. It is supported by a significant part of Ukrainians of Russian and of Ukrainian origin, who adhere to this view of a common Russia-led Orthodox East Slavic world.

Ukrainian historians and politicians use the Ukrainian language and the Ukrainian historical narrative with its national myths of liberty and its closeness to Europe in their campaigns against the Russian hegemony. The on-going Russian-Ukrainian "War of memories" is of special interest. So history and memory matter. It is impossible to understand and to explain what is going on in Russia and the other post-Soviet states without taking into account the imperial heritage of the tsarist Empire and of the Soviet Union and its interpretations and remembrances.

The ongoing struggle over hegemony in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus between Russia on the one hand and the European Union and the NATO on the other hand, is focused on Ukraine, the second state in Europe by territory. In Russia again exerted considerable pressure on Ukraine in order to keep Ukraine in its own strategic orbit and to prevent the integration of Ukraine into the European Union.

In , President Vladimir Putin announced a plan to build 51 modern ships and 24 submarines by Russian naval manpower is a mixture of conscripts serving one-year terms and volunteers Officers and Ratings. As of the conscription term was reduced to one year and a major downsizing and reorganization were underway. In , plans were announced to move the headquarters to the Admiralty building in St. Petersburg , the historic location of the headquarters of the Imperial Russian Navy. The Navy staff finally relocated there on November The Russian Naval Infantry are the amphibious force of the Russian Navy and can trace their origins back to , when Peter I issued a decree for an infantry regiment "of naval equipage".

Under the leadership of Admiral Gorshkov during the Cold War, the Soviet Navy expanded the reach of the Naval Infantry and deployed it worldwide on numerous occasions, but since the dissolution of the Soviet Union its role has been greatly reduced. During the Cold War the naval aviation pursued a policy of deploying large numbers of bombers in maritime strike roles to counter the U. Navys extensive fleet of aircraft carriers, by it operated over 1, fixed-wing aircraft with the majority being bombers such as the TuM "Backfire" and the Tu "Badger".

As of , the Russian Naval Aviation consists of the following components: [32]. The Russian Navy consists of four fleets and one flotilla subordinated to 3 of 4 of the newly formed Joint Operational Strategic Commands. The Russian Northern Fleet, established as a modern formation in , is headquartered at Severomorsk and spread around various bases in the greater Murmansk area.

This is the main fleet of the Russian Navy and currently comprises: [33]. The Fleet also includes many corvettes, patrol ships, light amphibious ships and support and logistic ships. The Baltic Fleet, established on 18 May , is based in Baltiysk and Kronshtadt , with its headquarters in the city of Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast.

The Fleet consists of; [33]. The Baltic Fleet also includes many corvettes, patrol ships, minehunters, light amphibious ships and support vessels.

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The fleet also has various other facilities on the Crimean Peninsula and facilities in Krasnodar Kray. The Fleet also includes a small number of corvettes, patrol and coastal protection ships, light amphibious ships, and support vessels. The Caspian Flotilla, established on 4 November , is based in Astrakhan and Makhachkala with its headquarters in Astrakhan. The Pacific Fleet, established on 10 May and is headquartered in Vladivostok and based around Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy.

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The Pacific Fleet also includes coastal combatants such as corvettes, patrol ships, mine warfare ships, light amphibious ships, and support vessels. There are also naval aviation and coastal troops and naval infantry components. The recent improvement in the Russian economy has led to a significant rise in defence expenditure and an increase in numbers of ships under construction, focusing on submarines, such as the conventional Petersburg Lada class and nuclear Severodvinsk Yasen class. Some older ships have been refitted as well. Jane's Fighting Ships commented in that the construction programme was too focused on Cold War scenarios, given the submarine emphasis.

On 28 April , the Ukrainian parliament ratified an agreement to extend Russia's lease of Crimean base facilities to with an option for five more years, through The Russian Navy has also revealed that the Russia's Black Sea Fleet will receive 30 new ships by and will become self-sufficient with its own infrastructure in the Crimean peninsula.

The fleet will be updated with new warships, submarines, and auxiliary vessels within the next six years. The new ships being built for the Black Sea Fleet include six Admiral Grigorovich-class frigates and six Varshavyanka-class Improved Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines.

In the last years of the s naval activity was very low. Even at the height of the Kosovo war crisis a planned task group deployment to the Mediterranean was reduced to the dispatch of the intelligence ship Liman. Warships and helicopters from the Japanese and South Korean navies also took part. The Northern Fleet followed in January when thirteen ships and seven submarines took part in exercises in the Barents Sea. The involvement of Admiral Kuznetsov and Kirov -class battlecruiser nuclear-powered cruiser Petr Velikiy was overshadowed however by two ballistic missile launch failures, made more embarrassing because President Vladimir Putin was afloat aboard the Typhoon-class SSBN Arkhangelsk to witness the tests.

He was replaced by Admiral Vladimir Masorin in September Embarrassment for the Navy had continued, with a mine accident during rehearsals for the Baltic Fleet's celebration of Navy Day in St. However exercises and operations continued - Peace Mission in August involved a new level of cooperation between Russia and the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy. It included surface firings, air defence, and anti-submarine warfare ASW exercises. On October 16, , the speaker of Russia's upper house of parliament did not preclude Russia asking for a resumption of a naval presence in Yemen.

Authorities in the Middle East country had been calling on Moscow to help fight piracy and possible terrorist threats. The U. Speaking to journalists in Sana, the capital]] of Yemen, Federation Council Speaker Sergey Mironov said the new direction of Russia's foreign and defense policies and an increase in its naval missions would be taken into consideration when making a decision on the request. Mironov also said a visit to Russia by the president of Yemen , Ali Abdullah Saleh , could take place in the near future and that the issue of military technical cooperation could be raised during his visit.

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Main article: Imperial Russian Navy. Main article: Soviet Navy. Flagship of the navy, "Admiral Kuznetsov".

Kirov-class battlecruiser. Akula-class submarine Vepr. Sovremenniy class destroyer Bezuprechnyy. Steregushchy-class corvette. Main article: Naval Infantry Russia.

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  • Main article: Russian Naval Aviation. Main article: List of active Russian Navy ships. Main article: Russian Northern Fleet. Main article: Baltic Fleet. Main article: Black Sea Fleet. Main article: Caspian Flotilla. Main article: Pacific Fleet Russia.

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    Further information: Future of the Russian Navy. Main article: Russian naval base in Tartus. Retrieved March