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It paly major role in thermoregulation. The hypodermis is not part of the skin, and lies below the dermis. Its purpose is to attach the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supplying it with blood vessels and nerves. Skeletal system to supports the body and protect the internal organs e. Muscular and skeletal system works together to provide movements. Besides, skeletal system provide proper shape to our body. Without this system, human body can never be so organized as it is.

Circulatory system to help to transfer blood, nutrients, hormones, oxygen and other gases to and from different body parts. The circulatory system is extremely important in sustaining life. Heart pumps the blood throughout the body i. Heart oxygenates that blood. Then color red " arteries" except pulmonary arteries supply the oxygenated blood to various organs of the body. So it means that blood travels from different chambers of the heart all the time. Muscular system is also involved in this circulation if blood. The autonomous cardiac muscles relax and contract to help the heart in pumping blood.

Respiratory system to station of gaseous exchange i. The respiratory tract is the path of air that starts from the nasal cavity and end in smaller alveoli in lungs. It's major role is in breathing, no doubt an inevitable process. Besides, respiratory system also regulates blood pH and control body temperature. Nervous system to help all the body parts to communicate with each other via electrical and chemical impulses. Nervous system is involved in Nervous coordination. CNS represents the largest part of the nervous system, including the brain and the spinal cord, Together, with the peripheral nervous system PNS , it has a fundamental role in the control of behaviour.

Nervous system communicate with several other body systems. For example: Even when we haven't started eating, our brain starts telling our digestive organs i. Skeletal muscles also need neural inputs to start contraction. Lymphatic system to It plays a vital role in natural defense of body against infections.

The lymphatic system helps Defend the body against foreign invaders.

Human development

It destroys the bacteria and viruses through lymphocyte and macrophages with present within lymph nodes. Lymphatic system is involved in absorption of fat globules which are released by interstitial cells and the products of digestion of fats are absorbed. Spleen filters the blood. Endocrine system to It also help different body parts to communicate by secreting chemical substances called hormones.

Endocrine system is involved in Chemical coordination. These glands secrete hormone which are poured in bloodstream. From blood these are transported to the target tissues where they perform their particular work. For example: When the sugar level in blood drops then pancreas an endocrine gland secrete glucagon which works to increases glucose in blood. Endocrine system is involved in controlling growth, metabolism, sexual development, maintaining homeostasis etc Endocrine and nervous system work together and aid other organ systems to perform their functions.

Excretory system to help body to get rid of wastes. Excretion is the process of eliminating, from an organism, waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. The most salient organs of this system are kidneys. Kidneys with the help of their functional units i. They do this by separating urea, mineral salts, toxins, and other waste products from the blood. They also do the job of conserving water, salts, and electrolytes. At least one kidney must function properly for life to be maintained.

Reproductive system to aid in the production of new individual. All living things reproduce. The ability to learn persists throughout life and in some ways may improve as people build a base of ideas and come to understand how they learn best. Developmental stages occur with somewhat different timing for different individuals, as a function of both differing physiological factors and differing experiences.

Transition from one stage to another may be troublesome, particularly when biological changes are dramatic or when they are out of step with social abilities or others' expectations. Different societies place different meaning and importance on developmental stages and on the transitions from one to the next.

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For example, childhood is defined legally and socially as well as biologically, and its duration and meaning vary in different cultures and historical periods. Whether adults become parents, and if they do how many offspring they have, is determined by a wide variety of cultural and personal factors, as well as by biology.

Technology has added greatly to the options available to people to control their reproduction. Chemical and mechanical means exist for preventing, detecting, or terminating pregnancies. Through such measures as hormone therapy and artificial insemination, it is also possible to bring about desired pregnancies that otherwise could not happen.

The use of these technologies to prevent or facilitate pregnancy, however, is controversial and raises questions of social mores, ethics, religious belief, and even politics. Its effects vary greatly among individuals. In general, muscles and joints tend to become less flexible, bones and muscles lose some mass, energy levels diminish, and the senses become less acute. For women, one major event in the aging process is menopause; sometime between the ages of 45 and 55, they undergo a major change in their production of sex hormones, with the result that they no longer have menstrual cycles and no longer release eggs.

The aging process in humans is associated not only with changes in the hormonal system but also with disease and injury, diet, mutations arising and accumulating in the cells, wear on tissues such as weightbearing joints, psychological factors, and exposure to harmful substances.

The slow accumulation of injurious agents such as deposits in arteries, damage to the lungs from smoking, and radiation damage to the skin, may produce noticeable disease. Sometimes diseases that appear late in life will affect brain function, including memory and personality. In addition, diminished physical capacity and loss of one's accustomed social role can result in anxiety or depression.

On the other hand, many old people are able to get along quite well, living out independent and active lives, without prolonged periods of disability. There appears to be a maximum life span for each species, including humans. Although some humans live more than a hundred years, most do not; the average length of life, including individuals who die in childhood, ranges from as low as 35 in some populations to as high as 75 in most industrialized nations.

The high averages are due mostly to low death rates for infants and children but also to better sanitation, diet, and hygiene for most people, and to improved medical care for the old. Life expectancy also varies among different socioeconomic groups and by sex. The most common causes of death differ for various age, ethnic, and economic groups.

In the United States, for example, fatal traffic accidents are most common among young males, heart disease causes more deaths in men than women, and infectious diseases and homicides cause more deaths among the poor than among the rich. The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions.

These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. The continual need for energy engages the senses and skeletal muscles in obtaining food, the digestive system in breaking food down into usable compounds and in disposing of undigested food materials, the lungs in providing oxygen for combustion of food and discharging the carbon dioxide produced, the urinary system for disposing of other dissolved waste products of cell activity, the skin and lungs for getting rid of excess heat into which most of the energy in food eventually degrades , and the circulatory system for moving all these substances to or from cells where they are needed or produced.

Like all organisms, humans have the means of protecting themselves. Self-protection involves using the senses in detecting danger, the hormone system in stimulating the heart and gaining access to emergency energy supplies, and the muscles in escape or defense. The skin provides a shield against harmful substances and organisms, such as bacteria and parasites. The immune system provides protection against the substances that do gain entrance into the body and against cancerous cells that develop spontaneously in the body. The nervous system plays an especially important role in survival; it makes possible the kind of learning humans need to cope with changes in their environment.

The internal control required for managing and coordinating these complex systems is carried out by the brain and nervous system in conjunction with the hormone-excreting glands. The electrical and chemical signals carried by nerves and hormones integrate the body as a whole. The many cross-influences between the hormones and nerves give rise to a system of coordinated cycles in almost all body functions.

Nerves can excite some glands to excrete hormones, some hormones affect brain cells, the brain itself releases hormones that affect human behavior, and hormones are involved in transmitting signals between nerve cells. Reproduction ensures continuation of the species. The sexual urge is biologically driven, but how that drive is manifested among humans is determined by psychological and cultural factors.

Sense organs and hormones are involved, as well as the internal and external sex organs themselves. The fact that sexual reproduction produces a greater genetic variation by mixing the genes of the parents plays a key role in evolution. Among living organisms, much behavior is innate in the sense that any member of a species will predictably show certain behavior without having had any particular experiences that led up to it for example, a toad catching a fly that moves into its visual field.

Some of this innate potential for behavior, however, requires that the individual develop in a fairly normal environment of stimuli and experience. In humans, for example, speech will develop in an infant without any special training if the infant can hear and imitate speech in its environment. The more complex the brain of a species, the more flexible its behavioral repertory is. Differences in the behavior of individuals arise partly from inherited predispositions and partly from differences in their experiences. There is continuing scientific study of the relative roles of inheritance and learning, but it is already clear that behavior results from the interaction of those roles, not just a simple sum of the two.

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The apparently unique human ability to transmit ideas and practices from one generation to the next, and to invent new ones, has resulted in the virtually unlimited variations in ideas and behavior that are associated with different cultures. Learning muscle skills occurs mostly through practice.

If a person uses the same muscles again and again in much the same way throwing a ball , the pattern of movement may become automatic and no longer require any conscious attention. The level of skill eventually attained depends on an individual's innate abilities, on the amount of practice, and on the feedback of information and reward. With enough practice, long sequences of behaviors can become virtually automatic driving a car along a familiar route, for instance.

In this case, a person does not have to concentrate on the details of coordinating sight and muscle movements and can also engage in, say, conversation at the same time. In an emergency, full attention can rapidly be focused back on the unusual demands of the task. Learning usually begins with the sensory systems through which people receive information about their bodies and the physical and social world around them.

Human body

The way each person perceives or experiences this information depends not only on the stimulus itself but also on the physical context in which the stimulus occurs and on numerous physical, psychological, and social factors in the beholder. The senses do not give people a mirror image of the world but respond selectively to a certain range of stimuli. The eye, for example, is sensitive to only a small fraction of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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  • Furthermore, the senses selectively filter and code information, giving some stimuli more importance, as when a sleeping parent hears a crying baby, and others less importance, as when a person adapts to and no longer notices an unpleasant odor. Experiences, expectations, motivations, and emotional levels can all affect perceptions. Much of learning appears to occur by association: If two inputs arrive at the brain at approximately the same time, they are likely to become linked in memory, and one perception will lead to an expectation of the other.

    Actions as well as perceptions can be associated.

    At the simplest possible level, behavior that is accompanied or followed by pleasant sensations is likely to occur again, whereas behavior followed by unpleasant sensations is less likely to occur again. Behavior that has pleasant or unpleasant consequences only under special conditions will become more or less likely when those special conditions occur. The strength of learning usually depends on how close the inputs are matched in time and on how often they occur together.

    However, there can be some subtle effects. For example, a single, highly unpleasant event following a particular behavior may result in the behavior being avoided ever after. On the other hand, rewarding a particular behavior even only every now and then may result in very persistent behavior. But much of learning is not so mechanical. People tend to learn much from deliberate imitation of others.

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    Nor is all learning merely adding new information or behaviors. Human thinking involves the interaction of ideas, and ideas about ideas, and thus can produce many associations internally without further sensory input. People's ideas can affect learning by changing how they interpret new perceptions and ideas: People are inclined to respond to, or seek, information that supports the ideas they already have and on the other hand to overlook or ignore information that is inconsistent with the ideas.

    If the conflicting information is not overlooked or ignored, it may provoke a reorganization of thinking that makes sense of the new information, as well as of all previous information. Successive reorganizations of one part or another of people's ideas usually result from being confronted by new information or circumstances. Such reorganization is essential to the process of human maturation and can continue throughout life.

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    To stay in good operating condition, the human body requires a variety of foods and experiences. The amount of food energy calories a person requires varies with body size, age, sex, activity level, and metabolic rate. The normal condition of most body systems requires that they perform their adaptive function: For example, muscles must effect movement, bones must bear loads, and the heart must pump blood efficiently. Good health also depends on the avoidance of excessive exposure to substances that interfere with the body's operation.

    Chief among those that each individual can control are tobacco implicated in lung cancer, emphysema, and heart disease , addictive drugs implicated in psychic disorientation and nervous-system disorders , and excessive amounts of alcohol which has negative effects on the liver, brain, and heart. In addition, the environment may contain dangerous levels of substances such as lead, some pesticides, and radioactive isotopes that can be harmful to humans. Therefore, the good health of individuals also depends on people's collective effort to monitor the air, soil, and water and to take steps to keep them safe.

    Body bogglers

    Other organisms also can interfere with the human body's normal operation. Some kinds of bacteria or fungi may infect the body to form colonies in preferred organs or tissues. Viruses invade healthy cells and cause them to synthesize more viruses, usually killing those cells in the process. Infectious disease also may be caused by animal parasites, which may take up residence in the intestines, bloodstream, or tissues. The body's own first line of defense against infectious agents is to keep them from entering or settling in the body. Protective mechanisms include skin to block them, tears and saliva to carry them out, and stomach and vaginal secretions to kill them.

    Related means of protecting against invasive organisms include keeping the skin clean, eating properly, avoiding contaminated foods and liquids, and generally avoiding needless exposure to disease. The body's next line of defense is the immune system. White blood cells act both to surround invaders and to produce specific antibodies that will attack them or facilitate attack by other white cells.

    For years afterward, or even a lifetime, the immune system will be ready for that type of organism and be able to limit or prevent the disease. A person can "catch a cold" many times because there are many varieties of germs that cause similar symptoms. Allergic reactions are caused by unusually strong immune responses to some environmental substances, such as those found in pollen, on animal hair, or in certain foods. Sometimes the human immune system can malfunction and attack even healthy cells.